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1201104 - Biology and Genetics
Academic Year 2021/2022
Free text for the University
- Secondo Ciclo Semestrale
- Teaching style
- Lingua Insegnamento
|[MCLM01] Corso di Laurea Magistrale in Medicina e Chirurgia||[PDS0-2019 - Ord. 2019] comune||12||150|
The general aim of biology and genetics integrated course is the learning of experimental method and its applications to the study of the main biological phenomena. Therefore, the course aims to develop the ability to perform accurate and documented observations and to make it a proper critical analysis in order to draw verifiable generalizations.
To this purpose, at the end of the course the student should have:
- Assimilated the logical processes and the strategies that allow to inferred generalizable principles, starting at the knowledge of the exemplar biology experiments.
- Assimilated the constructive logic of fundamental biological structures at different organization levels of the living organisms, and the general principles that govern the functioning of the different biological units.
- Understood the logic of the principles that govern the diversification of biological units, in relation to their internal structure, functional compartmentalization, to their mechanisms of genic expression, both longitudinally, along the evolutionary history, and between different districts of each individual (differentiation).
- Understood the mechanisms that govern the transmission of genetic information in families and in the population.
- Developed the ability to evaluate the risks of the occurrence of genetic (and/or with genetic compon
The living beings features and classification criterions. Cell theory. Molecular interactions in the structures and biological entities. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic virus. The main biological macromolecules: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. Biological membranes (structure, properties and functions).Cytoplasmic organelles: nucleus (nuclear membrane, nuclear pores, nucleolus and nuclear lamina). Ribosomes. Smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum; Golgi apparatus; lysosomes and peroxisomes. Mitochondria, chloroplasts and endosymbiosis theory. Cell wall and vacuoles. Cytoskeleton and motor proteins (kinesins and dyneins). Cilia and flagella. Extracellular matrix. DNA, chromatin and chromosomes. Molecular bases of hereditary information. Crucial experiments towards the discovery of DNA as genetic material. DNA replication and enzymes involved in DNA replication. The fidelity of DNA replication. Telomeres and telomerase. Mechanisms of DNA repair and their correlations with human diseases. RNA: structure and functions. Ribosomal RNA, messenger RNA and transfer RNA. Ribozymes. Transcription. Maturation of ribosomal RNA and transfer RNA. Maturation of eukaryotic mRNA (5’ capping, polyadenylation and splicing). Micro-RNA and siRNA. Genetic code and its properties (reading and interpretation). Degeneration of the genetic code, stop codons, start codon. Protein synthesis. Co-translational folding of proteins and correlation with human diseases. The chaperone proteins (hsp70 and hsp60). Proteasome degradation of proteins and poly-ubiquitination. Post-synthetic destiny of proteins. Signal sequences. Post-translational importation of proteins in mitochondria, chloroplasts and nucleus. Co-translational translocation of proteins in RER. Endomembrane system and transport vesicles (COPI, COPII and clathrin coated vesicles). Maturation of proteins. Protein glycosylation and biochemical compartmentalization of Golgi apparatus. Role of N-glycosylation in RE folding of proteins. Exocytosis and endocytosis (pinocytosis and receptor-mediated endocytosis). Phagocytosis and autophagocytosis. Regulation of gene expression in prokaryotes (lac and tryptophan operons). Functional organization of eukaryotic genome. Histone code and hints of epigenetics. Chromatin structure, histones and chromosomes. Euchromatin and heterochromatin. Molecular mechanisms of gene expression regulation in eukaryotes: transcriptional control; post-transcriptional and translational control. Cell cycle and its control. Mitosis and meiosis. Crossing over and genetic variability. Asexual and sexual reproduction. Aplont, diplont and aplo-diplont sexual cycles. Gametogenesis (spermatogenesis and oogenesis). Cellular segnalation and the main signal transduction pathways. G protein-coupled receptors, protein-tyrosine kinase receptors and receptors for steroid hormones. Firts and second messengers. Apoptosis. Molecular bases of the cancer. Onco-suppressor genes and oncogenes.
• Cooper- Hausman, La cellula Un approccio molecolare, PICCIN
• Karp, Biologia cellulare e molecolare, EDISES.Other • Thompson& Thompson, Genetica in Medicina, Nussbaum, McInnes, Willard, IDELSON-GNOCCHI
• Alberts e autori vari, Biologia molecolare della cellula, Zanichelli
• Eredità principi e problematiche della genetica umana Michael R. Cummings, EDISES
• Genetica Umana (1000 esercizi a risposta multipla) B. Porfirio, EDISES